Pedro de Valdivia is located within region II in Antofagasta , Chile, one of the many abandoned nitrate along the desert in northern Chile, closed its doors in 1996 and now part of the national heritage.
Pedro de Valdivia Nitrate is a village near Tocopilla dating from 1911. Next to it are the Saltpeter José Francisco Vergara, Maria Elena and Coya Sur (ex Coya Norte) .
In 1911 , Guggenheim Brothers bought and developed this giant Chuquicamata copper mine , under the leadership of Elias Anton Cappelen Smith engineer . For over a decade, Cappelen studied the nitrate industry technology and designed a new method for extracting and purifying the Guggenheim patented system , first applied in 1926 in Oficina Maria Elena caliche .
The office was opened in 1931 . In 1965 , the company became the Soquimich power .
In early 1996 this office was depopulated due to high pollution emitting the nitrate plant, but continues to operate machinery , this is how all the people in the camp were moved to nearby destinations , mainly Oficina Maria Elena .
Portico of saltpeter .
The Pedro de Valdivia Nitrate Office is located in the area called the canton d El Toco , 60 kilometers east of the city of Tocopilla , capital of the province of the same name, in the region of Antofagasta.
The canton of El Toco includes the Llano de la Paciencia on the south, the center Mirage Pampa and Pampa Negra on the north, comprising a total length of 100 km.
Offices belonging to the village of El Toco are: Iberia, Grotto Prosperity Rica Adventure, Good Hope , Business and Toco in the Black Pampa , Maria Elena ( Coya Norte) , Coya Sur and Francisco Vergara, in Pampa Mirage , and Pedro De Valdivia , called the Llano de la Paciencia .
Construction of the Pedro de Valdivia saltpeter , saltpeter last one up , starting on January 5, 1930 .
The first production of nitrate occurs on June 6, 1931 , leaving that day (June 6 ) as the ‘Day of Pedro de Valdivia ‘ , declared by municipal resolution , which is celebrated every year on the Sunday closest to that day .
In the construction of this great work , which lasted 16 years, worked 6,374 workers and 454 employees. Room for all this population temporary camp , which was built of corrugated iron and wood construction delayed from January 5 to July 1, 1930 was enabled . This camp was composed of 8 dwelling , each of 20 pieces each, and three dining rooms.
For employees there were 2 staff of 22 pieces each and a dining room.
Also had a grocery store , administrative offices , hospital and police a small retainer .
In this camp are some venues that do remember the other Pedro de Valdivia Pedro de Valdivia that unknown.
In the beginning the camp resembled a ” L ” formed by Diego de Almagro avenues , coming down from the entrance to the mine to Avenida Bernardo O’Higgins and this, with which it formed a right angle indicating the beginning thereof, and ending in which then continues to increase the office, would be the avenue Los Dones.
Passages Puelma Ossa and made ??of solid construction in 1931 , were inhabited by single workers , then the police station , were located passages called Lautaro , Aconcagua, and Coya Caupolicán .
Pedro Montt Balmaceda and the street were the first to be built, adjacent to the sector called Cuttings from number 1 to 28 . The rest of the streets were built O’Higgins street from number 1 to 13 Almagro street from number 1 to 16 Washington Street number 10 to 22 , San Martín street number 9 to 21 and enclosures tennis court , Tennis basketball , hopscotch court , gym, auditorium and swimming pool employees.
He continued with the construction of the San Martín street number 49 to 79, Lord Cochrane Street , Bolivar and Portales. Then the commercial sector and public offices : shops (called concessions) , Correos de Chile , Office of Civil Registry and Identification Office , behind concession stores , streets Thistles , Maria Elena and Cecilia ; Avenida Bernardo O’Higgins to Avenida Los Dones, Angamos and Independence . In addition to built the Staff s No. 4 and 5, which were collective rooms for singles empelados , Football Stadium , Freedom Park , better known as ” The Bullseye, and , next to the Golf Course .
Pedro de Valdivia existed 27 streets, passages and avenues leading the illustrious name of the national life . However, the names of these streets have the particularity that they remembered the name of other nitrate plants belonging to the same company that owns Oficina Pedro de Valdivia .
Among the most important buildings we can mention :
1. The passages .
Two . The camp “A”.
Called American camp , which was enabled by supervisors ( top employees or staff officers , as it was called at the time) .
This sector was composed of three types of rooms :
A. The Chalets type A, B and C , solid construction, original architectural lines of identical forms , differing in the size and the type of houses had a fireplace in the bedroom and living room.
Hospital, Adjoining the church was built in December 1931 , solidly built , has an original architectural style. In the beginning were 2 rooms for patients ( Ladies and Men ) , a polyclinic , dentist room , a pavilion for operations , training and motherhood. Then he was growing as the population was increasing . On one side is the church .
The Church .
Located on a small hill , solid construction , beautiful architectural lines and beautiful windows. Its simple but elegant especially the use of large amounts of pine wood in different sectors Oregon interior, which gives a special touch to the site. It was built in 1941 . Previously religious services were held in a residence located in the Bernardo O’Higgins Avenue .
Theater of Pedro de Valdivia.
The first Theatre Office was opened on December 1, 1934 at the intersection of Diego de Almagro and Bernardo O’Higgins avenues. He was called ” canned theater ” for its construction and roofing timbers. He disappeared following a fire in 1936 . For this reason it was built on the side of the square a striking building a new theater with seating for 800 people . The interior features an excellent design and elegant draperies and on top of its front , with huge concrete letters reads as follows :
Solid construction , was inaugurated on September 18, 1932 . It is located across from the town square . The primary school is located in the center of the office, facing the square , in the central sector. Solid concrete construction and original architectural lines, officially born in the former office Curico. By paralyzing the nitrate center was moved in its legal aspects Pedro de Valdivia . In the courtyard the bell announcing the entrance to classes and recess, as an inscription says: ” Aconcagua office ” , as this was brought to the office when it halted its work. The school began its work with the beginning of Pedro de Valdivia. As this office was paralyzed two years, reopened on October 1, 1934 with a total enrollment of 491 students: 243 women and 248 men. In 1986 into the hands of the municipality of Maria Elena .
The Social .
The social and sports club is located in the center of the office, opposite Plaza ( Civic Center ) , solid construction and original architectural lines concentrated inside a ballroom and pool workers. In subsequent ” house cleaning ” part , where would necessarily pass every newcomer to the office for health and hygiene reasons. In the frontispiece two hairdressers and public baths ; ladies section on the left and right for men , with showers and tubs for bathrooms with hot or cold water , depending on the season. This building was built between June 1, 1930 and November 21, 1930 .
The grocery store was the characteristic of the nitrate mall because all there was . Pulpería comes octopus : central core with several branches , in the case of Pedro de Valdivia is located in the center opposite the main square adjacent to the school at the civic center . Construction of identical characteristics to school, had different sections such as: Grocery , archway , shop, shoe store, deli , meat , confectionery, perfumery , packaging and canteen.
The office center is shaped by the square with various buildings around it . The rectangular, consisting of a central kiosk and initially 4 roundabouts or small octagonal kiosks in its corners (now is one that was transformed for the sale of newspapers and magazines) . The square is surrounded by the elementary school , the building of the former grocery store , theater and industrial high school. The central kiosk , similar to other offices ( type of construction that occurred only in the nitrate , therefore very original with ) , among others, was used for retreats overlooking the side musicians or choir , organized architectural features in October 1934 and consists of a director and 11 musicians.
In 1924 , Guggenheim Bros. bought the Chilean Treasury the grounds of the Mirage salar , to inaugurate the office Maria Elena , in 1926, and Pedro de Valdivia in 1931 . Both plants were gigantic compared to the nitrate of the time and reached a joint production of 1,220,000 tons / year, working caliches low grade and lower cost. As a result of this new technology, in 1930 the Guggenheim Bros. absorbed Grupo Lautaro Nitrate Co. , owner of the Central Canton nitrate to form the Anglo Lautaro Nitrate Co. Pedro de Valdivia was the first to suffer a standstill due to the global crisis that developed in the 30s, and it did not work between November 1932 and August 1934.
Those two years of termination of service would not let him out of the race , as the August 23, 1934 the mine shipped its first cars loaded with caliche to the mills. That day were processed about 820 tons of ore. [Citation needed]
Anniversary of Pedro de Valdivia.
After the closure of the camp in 1996, pampinos had to be moved to nearby destinations , however , the first Sunday of June again Pedro de Valdivia to celebrate their reunion and organize artistic presentations throughout Chile pedrinos all day . This day is a great influx of tourists and visitors who want to know the history of the nitrate .